Ductus arterioso persistente y morbilidades intrahospitalarias en Recién Nacidos de muy bajo peso al nacer

  • Larissa Genes
  • Claudia Rodas
  • Ramón Mir
  • José Lacarrubba
  • Elizabeth Céspedes
  • Elvira Mendieta
Palabras clave: Ductus arterioso permeable; Recién Nacido de muy bajo peso; morbilidades neonatales.

Resumen

Introducción:

El ductus arterioso persistente (DAP) es el defecto cardiocirculatorio más frecuente en prematuros, está inversamente relacionado con la edad gestacional y el peso al nacimiento; y se asocia a diversas complicaciones.

Objetivo:

Evaluar la morbilidad asociada a la presencia de ductus arterioso persistente (DAP) en Recién Nacidos de muy bajo peso al nacer (RMBPN).

Materiales y Métodos:

Estudio retrospectivo de casos y controles anidado en una cohorte de RMBPN admitidos en la UCIN, de enero de 2013 a diciembre de 2015. Excluidos RN con malformaciones congénitas, fallecidos en sala de parto, fallecidos el primer día de vida asociados a asfixia perinatal severa y trasladados a otras instituciones. Las características basales fueron: peso, edad gestacional, sexo, control prenatal, hipertensión materna, embarazo múltiple, restricción del crecimiento, corticoide prenatal, ruptura prolongada de membranas, tipo de parto, Apgar. Las morbilidades analizadas fueron: distres respiratorio (SDR), hemorragia pulmonar, enterocolitis necrozante (ECN), hemorragia intraventricular (HIV), sepsis, soporte respiratorio, broncodisplasia pulmonar (DBP), ruptura alveolar, retinopatía del prematuro (ROP), días de internación y muerte. Se consignaron los datos en SSPS 17 y Epi info 7.2, se aplicó la prueba X² o Fischer, t de Student o la prueba de Mann Whitney. Significancia p< 0,05 con intervalo de confianza 95%.

Resultados:

Se incluyeron 131 RN, con DAP 62 y sin DAP 69, cuyas características basales fueron similares, salvo el uso de corticoides prenatales para el grupo sin DAP (p 0.035) RR 0,7 (0,5-0,9). Los RN con DAP tuvieron SDR (p 0,0003) RR 1,5 (1,1-1,9), hemorragia pulmonar (p 0,024) RR 8,9 (1,1-69), ventilación mecánica (p 0,0001) RR 1,7(1,3-2,2), oxígeno a los 28 días (p 0,001) RR 2,2 (1,3-3,8), mayor duración de NPT (p 0.01), trasfusiones (p 0,01) RR 1,7(1,3-2,2), HIV (p 0,003) RR 2,1 (1,2-3,6), BDP (p 0,0001) RR 2,6(1,5-4,5), y mayor cantidad de días de internación (p 0,008). Riesgo de muerte (p 0,001) RR 3,5 (1,5-8,2). Sin asociación con ENC (p 0,195), ROP (p 0,739), Sepsis clínica (p 0,123) ni sepsis tardía (p 0,12).

Conclusión:

Los RMBN con DAP tuvieron mayor riesgo de muerte y morbilidades graves en comparación con los que no desarrollaron DAP.

Citas

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Publicado
2017-10-17
Sección
Artículos Originales