Vacunación contra el virus del papiloma humano

  • Wilson Martín Agüero Echeverría
Palabras clave: Virus del papiloma humano, cáncer de cuello uterino, prevención, vacunación.

Resumen

El descubrimiento de que ciertas cepas de alto riesgo de los virus de papiloma humano causan cerca del 100% de cáncer cervical invasivo, disparó una revolución en la investigación de vacunas preventivas del cáncer en cuestión. La infección por el virus del papiloma humano (VPH) produce lesiones epiteliales en la piel genital y no genital, y en las membranas mucosas. A pesar que la mayoría de las infecciones son benignas y autolimitadas, la infección persistente puede llevar a una variedad de situaciones malignas. Gardasil es cuadrivalente, se produce en la levadura S. cerevisiae y contiene los tipos 16 y 18, que son los oncogénicos, además de los tipos 6 y 11, los cuales causan cerca del 90% de las verrugas genitales. Cervarix está formulada con un sistema adyuvante propio que induce una respuesta de anticuerpos significativamente mayor y más persistente que los mismos antígenos del virus formulados únicamente con hidróxido de aluminio. Ambas vacunas inducen una fuerte respuesta de anticuerpos en mujeres jóvenes, con virtualmente el 100% de seroconversión. Ninguna de las dos vacunas tiene efecto terapéutico. Es obligación del cuerpo médico de cada país, la evaluación de la eficacia de las campañas de vacunación, así como la eficacia a mediano plazo de la vacuna elegida por nuestro gobierno, dadas las diferencias en lo inherente a la duración de la protección, especialmente para cáncer de cérvix.

Citas

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Publicado
2017-10-22
Sección
Artículos de Revisión